I used to be one of the many trainers who taught using dominance as my base for all behaviour. Even after I transitioned into positive training, when a dog would act up I would still use that as my behavioural model, pulling out the standard "he's trying to be alpha and you need to be more assertive with him" or some line like that.
If a dog a dog sleeping on the couch growled at someone that walked by and pet it, I would say, "He's really challenging you. You need to be more assertive, a better leader. He doesn't respect your authority."